Tieback walls are retaining walls which are built from the top downwards in cut situations and consist of prestressed tieback anchors locked against either a shotcrete facing or soldier piles. The tiebacks may be anchored against a shotcrete facing when the soil has enough apparent cohesion that it can stand up on its own during construction. The alternate tieback system incorporates tiebacks anchored against soldier piles with some sort of whaler system.
- FHWA-RD-82-046, "Tiebacks, Executive Summary", July 1982
- FHWA-RD-82-047, "Tiebacks", July 1982
- FHWA-DP-68-1R, "Permanent Ground Anchors", November 1984
- FHWA-DP-90-068-003, "DP-68, Permanent Ground Anchors, Volume 1, Final Report and Volume 2, Field Demonstration Project Summaries", April 1990